Mar 30, 2012

Happy Friday

An angry man opens his mouth and shuts his mind and his eyes.

My mind is open, my eyes are open, and my mouth is ready to declare a Happy Friday!

Robots in Healthcare

Toyota has developed robots for care support, in response to society's aging demographics. These robots have been co-developed with Fujita Health University. They utilize advanced technologies from Toyota, including motor control technology developed for automobiles, as well as walking control and sensor technology used in bipedal robots.

"The first feature I'd like to show you is the independent walking assistance. Even people with one leg paralyzed, due to a stroke or the like, retain the use of their groin muscles. So they can swing the leg forward. The amount of swinging motion depends on the wearer's intention. If the person wants to walk quickly, there's a lot of swinging, and if they want to walk slowly, there's less. And this is detected by a sensor on the thigh. There's also a load sensor on the sole of the foot, to detect when it touches the ground. The wearer's intention can be detected using just these two sensors."

The brace and backpack each weigh 3.5kg, with the backpack containing a battery and controller. When a commercial version is released, the weight of the backpack will be halved, so this part will fit into a waist pouch.

The automatic walking assist robot has also been used in tests to help with walking practice. By changing the support force as the patient recovers, this system can help people to practice walking naturally from the start.

In addition, Toyota is developing a balance training assist robot using its Winglet technology for personal mobility, and a robot that helps move people out of a bed and into a wheelchair.

"Moving someone onto the toilet used to require two people, but it can now be done by one person. We think this could reduce the burden on caregivers' backs, and also help patients feel more at ease."

Toyota aims to release all these robots from 2013 onward.

National Doctor's Day

March 30, 2012  is National Doctor's Day. The first observance of Doctor’s Day was in 1933 observed in Winder, Georgia on the 91st anniversary of the first administration of anesthesia by Dr. Crawford W. Long in 1842. It was proclaimed a national day of celebration beginning in 1991 by President George H.W. Bush.

This first observance included the mailing greeting cards and placing flowers on graves of deceased doctors. The red carnation is commonly used as the symbolic flower for National Doctor's Day.

Dr. Crawford W. Long performed the first operation while a patient was anesthetized by ether in 1842 as he removed a tumor from the neck of a boy.

This event has been celebrated as Doctors’ Day since this day in 1933. The idea of setting aside a day to honor physicians was conceived by Eudora Brown Almond, wife of Dr. Charles B. Almond. Doctors throughout the United States celebrate in Dr. Crawford W. Long’s honor and, in honor of ether as an anesthetic.

Johnny Carson

Millions were entertained for decades by the late night TV host of the Tonight Show. Here are a number of YouTube videos of some great moments for your viewing pleasure. LINK Save it for when you have a bunch of free time.

Old Movies Online

If you are interested in old movies from the thirties and forties, including the famous Reefer Madness, Tarzan, Sherlock Holmes, Lamont Cranston, Inner Sanctum, etc., this is the site to watch.

All the movies are in the public domain and free to watch. It also has current news programs from around the world and comedy, sports etc. Not much in the way of details, but the titles and descriptions provide some info. LINK.

Bacon Candy Necklace

Here is a smokin’ accessory to help you increase your popularity, the Bacon Candy Necklace. 

Comes complete with a gorgeous edible bacon medallion. Mmmm!

Mar 27, 2012

Hoisted by His Own Petard

Many have heard this statement. Here is the background. Shakespeare, specifically Hamlet, act III, scene 4, lines 206 and 207: "For 'tis sport to have the engineer/ Hoist with his own petar …"

The Melancholy Dane is chuckling over the fate he has in store for his childhood comrades, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are plotting to have him killed. Deferring his existential crisis for a moment, Hamlet turns the plot on the plotters, substituting their names for his in the death warrant they carry from King Claudius.

He continues: "But I will delve one yard below their mines/ And blow them at the moon." The key word is "mines," as in "land mines," for that's what a petard is (or "petar," as Shakespeare wrote. A small explosive device designed to blow open barricaded doors and gates, the petard was a favorite weapon in Elizabethan times.

Hamlet was saying, figuratively, that he would bury his bomb beneath Rosencrantz and Guildenstern's and "hoist" them, i.e., "blow them at the moon."

The word "petard," comes from the Middle French peter, which derives in turn from the Latin peditum, to break wind. So, a small explosion.

Mealtime Definitions

Dinner is usually the name of the main meal of the day. Depending upon culture, dinner may be the second, third, or fourth meal of the day. It is still occasionally used for a noontime meal, if it is a large or main meal.

Dinner was the first meal of a two-meal day with the dinner heavy meal at noontime. The word is from the Old French disner, meaning "breakfast."

More meals were added and the morning meal became breakfast, because we 'break the fast' of not eating since the day before. Eventually, dinner shifted to referring to the heavy main meal of the day, even if it had been preceded by a breakfast meal. The (lighter) meal following dinner has traditionally been referred to as supper

Luncheon, commonly abbreviated to lunch, is a midday meal, and is generally smaller than dinner, which is the main meal of the day whenever dinner is eaten. The origin of the words lunch and luncheon relate to a small meal originally eaten at any time of the day or night, but during the 20th century gradually focused toward a small meal eaten at midday.

So, there it is - Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner for some. Others say it is Breakfast, Dinner, Supper. Still others say Breakfast, Lunch, Supper. None of these are to be confused with Brunch, which is a combo of the words breakfast and lunch. Snacks are not meals, so they contain no calories.

Hard Drive Capacity

Seagate has demonstrated hard drive technology that squeezes a trillion bits into a single square inch, claiming it’s the first hard drive manufacturer to do so.

During the next 10 years, the company says, this will lead to standard 3.5-inch drives that can store 60 terabytes of information. Today’s 3.5-inch drives (like the one in your current PC) give you three terabytes of storage, stuffing about 620 billion bits into each square inch.

To give you an idea of how much that is, the hard disk contains more bits in a single square inch than the Milky Way has stars.

What's in a Name, Stanley Cup

March 1894 play-off competition for the coveted hockey award known as Lord Stanley’s Cup began. Montreal and Ottawa played for the first championship honors. Montreal took home the trophy.

The original trophy was purchased by Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley, Lord Stanley of Preston. He then donated it to the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association.

In 1926, the playoff format took the order that remains in place today and the National Hockey League has been the permanent forum.

The teams with the most Stanley Cup titles since 1927 include the Detroit Red Wings (9) and Toronto Maple Leafs (11), with the Montreal Canadiens (24). Larry Robinson holds the record for playing in the most Stanley Cup games (203 for Montreal and 24 for the LA Kings).

The Stanley Cup competition remains the oldest in professional sports in North America.

Mar 23, 2012

Happy Friday

Cheerfulness suggests good health, a clear conscience, and a soul at peace with all human nature.

I have good health, a clear conscience, and am at peace with having a Happy Friday!

Cashew Facts

The thing we normally think of a a cashew nut is really a seed. Cashews grow on short evergreen trees and are originally from South America, but now more commonly found in India, the Philippines, and Africa as well.

The accessory fruit is the oval or pear or bell-shaped structure that develops from the receptacle of the cashew flower which ripens into a yellow and/or red and delicately soft body, called cashew apple. 

The nut is attached to the fruit and inside the nut is the seed, which we call a cashew nut. The seed has within itself a whole kernel and is covered by a membrane and a thick outer shell. The picture shows an upside down version of how the fruit and nut grow from the tree.

The bark of the tree is scraped and soaked overnight or boiled as an antidiarrheal and also yields a gum used in varnish. Seeds are ground into powders used for antivenom for snake bites, while the nut oil is used topically as an antifungal and for healing cracked heels.

The cashew apple is five to ten times richer in Vitamin C than an orange and may be consumed fresh, but its high tannin content yields a slightly bitter taste and dry mouth after-feel. The soft flesh packs a rather large quantity of nutritious sweet juice but with extreme astringency that puckers up the mouth.

Cashew fruit juice is popular in Brazil and the Philippines. The juice is also fermented into liquor in many countries.

Hamburger Culture

A researcher recently announced that his lab will have a hamburger fit for human consumption this fall, 2012. Growing meat without raising livestock has long been a goal and now it seems it is finally practical.

He made the announcement at the annual meeting for the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Vancouver. He said by the fall they will have enough tissue to make a hamburger.

Cultured meat begins with muscle cells taken from the rear of a cow for sirloin steak or from the area surrounding a pig’s spine for growing pork chops, etc. The cells are then placed in a nutrient mixture that helps them to proliferate. A biodegradable scaffold guides the cells as they grow together to eventually form tissue. I withheld the pics, because it does not look pretty at this stage. Hey, maybe they should grow the pork and beef together in the dish and make bacon burgers.

Erasable Ink from Printers

Toshiba Tec is developing a revolutionary copier system that can erase printed text from regular copy paper. It is slated to be out the last quarter of this year, 2012.

The printer uses a special erasable toner, and when the printed page is passed through the color erasing device, the printing disappears and the paper can be used again. This toner can only be used with compatible copiers, but any regular copy paper can be used. The initial ink color is blue, but the company is working on other colors.

Here is a LINK to a demo.

"This is a special kind of toner that loses its color when heated, so this technology makes it look as if the printing has disappeared. With this system, one sheet of photocopy paper can be used at least five times, so this product combines economy with ecology."

In addition, the FriXion Ball line of erasable ball-point pens and highlighters from Pilot, are based on the same principals as used in this system.The imprint from the printing process is slightly visible, so recycling sensitive documents is not recommended.

Using Epsom Salts

Epsom salts are rich in magnesium, which plants need in order to grow well, particularly roses and tomatoes. You can mix 1 cup of Epsom salts with 1 gallon of water and water your plants. Try not to get it on the leaves if you water during the day. You can also sprinkle some of the salt into the soil. Palm trees especially need magnesium. I sprinkle it on the ground about eight inches around the whole trunk in March, July, and September.

Traffic Light Color Facts

The color scheme comes from a system used by the railroad industry since the 1830s. Railroad companies developed a lighted means to let train engineers know when to stop or go, with different lighted colors representing different actions.  They chose red as the color for stop, because red had for centuries been used to indicate danger. For the other colors, they originally chose white as the color for go and green as the color for caution.

The choice of a white light for go caused an incident in 1914 when a red lens fell out of its holder leaving the white light behind it exposed. This ended with a train running a “stop” signal and crashing into another train. The railroad decided to change it so the green light meant go and a yellow caution was chosen, because the color is so distinct from the other two colors used.

In 1920 in Detroit Michigan, a policeman named William L. Potts invented the four-way, three-color traffic signal using all three of the colors used in the railroad system. Thus, Detroit became the first to use the red, green, and yellow lights to control road traffic.

During the late 1920s, several automated and manual variations were tried, but in 1935, the Federal Highway Administration created “The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.” This document set uniform standards for all traffic signals and road signs. The current change to LED lights greatly reduces the amount of electricity needed and the bulbs last for years, saving a bundle on replacement costs.

Mar 20, 2012

Paint The Town Red

This colorful saying means to spend a wild night out, usually involving drinking. It probably originated on the frontier. In the nineteenth century the section of town where brothels and saloons were located was known as the ‘red light district.’ A group of lusty drunken cowhands out for a night on the town might saw the whole town as red. The saying is still use around the world to mean the same thing, a bawdy area of town. Many foreign city sections got the same name from visiting GIs during their 'tour of duty'.

His Name is Mudd

Dr. Samuel A. Mudd was the physician who set the leg of Lincoln's assassin John Wilkes Booth and whose shame created the expression, "His name is Mudd." 

He was sentenced to life in prison for splinting the fractured leg, but became a hero to guards and inmates of his island prison when he stopped a yellow-fever epidemic there in 1868 after the army doctors had died. President Johnson, Lincoln's successor, pardoned Mudd in early 1869.

What's in a Name, M&Ms

Forrest Mars, Sr., the founder of the Mars Company, got the idea for the confection in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War when he saw soldiers eating chocolate pellets with a hard shell of tempered chocolate surrounding the inside, preventing the candies from melting.

Mars received a patent for his own process on March 3, 1941. One M was for Forrest E. Mars Sr., and one for Bruce Murrie, the son of Hershey's Chocolate president William F. R. Murrie. Murrie had 20 percent interest in the product. The arrangement allowed the candies to be made with Hershey chocolate which had control of the rationed chocolate. During the war, the candies were exclusively sold to the military. Mars bought out Murrie after the war, but kept the name. Murrie was also the guy who came up with the Mr. Goodbar (chocolate with peanuts) idea.

You can special order M&Ms with a saying or name on them from its web site. I did this for a birthday present. It is a bit pricey, but much fun, especially for children to see their own name on the little goodies.

Feed When They Are Hungry

Here is another example of stupid research headlines. It says if you feed your baby when he or she is hungry, he or she will be smarter. I suppose that means as opposed to letting them scream until it is dinnertime.

According to a study published March 18 2012, babies who are fed on demand perform better academically than those who are fed on a schedule.

Using data from more than 10,000 children, researchers found that demand-fed babies scored four to five points higher on IQ tests at age eight. Demand-feeding also was associated with higher scores in school tests at ages five, seven, eleven and fourteen, according to the study published in the European Journal of Public Health.

And now the disclaimer
- However, the researchers, from the University of Essex and the University of Oxford, urged caution in interpreting the findings. "At this stage, we must be very cautious about claiming a causal link between feeding patterns and IQ ... more research is needed to understand the processes involved." So, the bottom line is that we should be cautious about believing the results.

Mar 16, 2012

Happy Friday

Most people would succeed in small things if they were not troubled with great ambitions.

It is not a small thing that I have great ambitions for a Happy Friday!

What's in a Name, Jose Cuervo

Jose Antonio de Cuervo received a land grant in 1758 from the King of Spain to start an agave farm in the Jalisco region of Mexico.

Jose used his agave plants to make mescal, a popular Mexican liquor. In 1795, King Carlos IV gave the land grant to Cuervo’s descendant Jose Maria Guadalupe de Cuervo and granted the Cuervo family the first license to commercially make tequila.

The family started packaging it in individual bottles in 1880, and in 1900 the tequila started using the brand name Jose Cuervo. The brand is still under the leadership of the original Jose Cuervo’s family. Juan-Domingo Beckmann is the sixth generation of Cuervo ancestors to run the company.

New Personal Robot

Coming in May, this thing is sure to be a hit. It is rumored to actually be affordable, for some. Helpful around the house. May not be completely affordable to everyone, right now. Kind of like the expensive HD TV when it first came out.

You saw it here first.

Rosemary Makes You Smart

Rosemary is one of many traditional medicinal plants that yield essential oils.

The Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre at Northumbria University, UK designed an experiment to investigate the pharmacology of one of rosemary's main chemical components.

The investigators tested cognitive performance and mood in 20 subjects, who were exposed to varying levels of the rosemary aroma. Using blood samples to detect the amount of 1,8-cineole participants had absorbed, the researchers applied speed and accuracy tests, and mood assessments, to judge the rosemary oil's affects.

Results indicated that concentration of 1,8-cineole in the blood is related to an individual's cognitive performance, with higher concentrations resulting in improved performance. Both speed and accuracy were improved. The oil did not appear to improve attention or alertness.

The same 1,8-cineole is also found in aromatic plants, such as eucalyptus, bay, wormwood, and sage.

Four Little Known Business Facts

Fifty percent of Domino's Pizza was once traded for a used VW Beetle.
The owner of Fedex once gambled his last five thousand dollars to win 32 thousand in Vegas to save the company.
SOS in SOS pads stands for 'save our saucepans' and was thought up by the owner's wife.
Ben and Jerry's was originally going to be a bagel company.

Enhancing Tomato Flavors

When cooking tomatoes, add a piece of the branch to really heighten the flavor. Also, when eating tomatoes, salt adds to the already natural acidity, try a pinch of sugar instead to really bring out the taste of the tomato.

Mar 14, 2012

How 7 Companies Chose Their Name

Pepsi is derived from the digestive enzyme pepsin.
Starbucks is named after Starbuck from the book Moby Dick.
Amazon is named after the Amazon, because Bezos wanted a name that began with A and the Amazon is the largest river in the world.
eBay was named because the original name Echo Bay was already taken as a dot com name.
Nike is named for the Greek goddess of victory.
Verizon is named after veritas (truth) and horizon.
Reebock is named after an African Antelope, Rhebok.

Better Bacon Book

The Better Bacon Book, which costs five dollars has been designed especially for the iPad and is an interactive book offers instructions on how to make your own bacon, build your own smoker, and find the best bacon to order.

It also has 31 interactive bacon recipes and 20 HD videos, 150 photos, and more tastiness than any human can handle at one time. Now we know why the iPad really sizzles. Disclaimer, I am not the author, although I wish I was.

Crooked Forest

The Crooked Forest is a grove of oddly shaped pine trees located outside the village of Nowe Czarnowo, in western Poland. The forest contains about 400 pine trees that grow with a 90 degree bend at the base of their trunks. All of the trees are bent northward and surrounded by a larger forest of straight-growing pine trees. The crooked trees were planted around 1930 when the area was inside the German province of Pomerania.

It is thought that the trees were formed with a human tool, but the method and motive for creating the grove is not currently known. It also appears that the trees were allowed to grow for seven to ten years before being held down and warped by a device.

The exact reason why the Germans would want to make crooked trees is unknown, but many people have speculated that they were going to be harvested for bent-wood furniture, the ribs of boat hulls, or yokes for ox-drawn plows.

Swiffer Fixer

If you use a Swiffer, you can save a bundle by using old kitchen towels instead of buying the Swiffer throw away sheets. You can wash and reuse the towels at no additional cost. Micro-weave towels really work great.

Uncle Sam

March 13 was Uncle Sam Day. On this day in 1852, the New York Lantern newspaper published an Uncle Sam cartoon for the first time from Frank Henry Bellew. Through the years, the caricature changed with Uncle Sam becoming symbolic of the U.S. Example of this symbolism were U.S. Army posters that portrayed Uncle Sam pointing and saying, “I want you!”

He always wore red, white, and blue with a hat of stars and he had stripes down both pant legs. How he became known as Uncle Sam has been lost, but one story was about a dock worker wondering what the words “From U.S.” meant on shipping crates.Someone said jokingly, “It is from your Uncle Sam.”

Mar 9, 2012

Happy Friday

Man is the only species who plants a crop he can’t eat, but still has to mow it every week.

I am planting the seeds and not cutting short my plan to have a Happy Friday!

Put on Your Thinking Cap

To put one's thinking cap on means to take time to think something over. It likely has its origins in the 17th century when jurists and other scholars commonly wore tight-fitting, square caps. An English judge of this era would put on his "considering cap" (his white wig) before passing sentence in all cases. back then some said it was considering cap.

Follow up - A new paper in the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology finds that ”wearing a white lab coat, a piece of clothing associated with care and attentiveness, improved performance on tests requiring close and sustained attention.”  The researchers found no effects when the coat was identified as a painter’s coat.  “The main conclusion that we can draw from the studies is that the influence of wearing a piece of clothing depends on both its symbolic meaning and the physical experience of wearing the clothes. There seems to be something special about the physical experience of wearing a piece of clothing.” 

Another Use for Old Jeans

Here is a tip to give a bit more life to your safety razor. Place old jeans on a hard flat surface; then run your safety razor up the pant legs about 10-15 times quickly; then repeat running it down the pant legs.  No need to press hard, just a little pressure.

Point the top of the razor in the direction you are rubbing so you do not shave the pants or try to cut them.

The threads on the jeans will fix any tiny bends in the blades and sharpen the blades.  For an already dull blade, you can sharpen it by doing 50-100 swipes both ways.

What's in a Name, Dr. Seuss

 The “Dr.” in “Dr. Seuss” was in homage to Theodore Geisel’s father’s hope that his son would get his PhD. Geisel instead dropped out of the PhD program at Oxford. He did eventually receive several honorary doctorates.

“Seuss” was his mother’s maiden name as well as his own middle name. 

Geisel first used the pen name “Seuss” in college after being removed as the editor of the Dartmouth College’s humor magazine 'Jack-O-Lantern' and being banned from writing for that magazine after he was caught drinking by the dean.

He subsequently started publishing under various pen names, including T. Seuss.   and Dr. Theophrastus Seuss, which was shortened to Dr. Seuss.  He also had an alternate pen name that he also wrote under which was Theo LeSieg.  The “Theo” is short for “Theodor”, and “LeSieg” is “Geisel” spelled backwards.
The proper pronunciation of Seuss is actually “Zoice” (rhymes with “voice”) as it is a Bavarian name.  Due to the fact that most Americans pronounced it incorrectly as Soose, Geisel later gave in, stopped correcting people, and decided mispronunciation was a good thing because it is “advantageous for an author of children’s books to be associated with Mother Goose.”

He would have been 108 years old this month. He died in 1991.

Nutmeg and Potatoes

Add just a dash of nutmeg to your next potato dish for a great taste.


The only word that consists of two letters, each used three times is the word "deeded."

A hamlet is a village without a church and a town is not a city until it has a cathedral.

The 'v' in the name of a court case does not stand for 'versus', but for 'and' (in civil proceedings) or 'against' (in criminal proceedings).

The word "karate" means "empty hand."

Mar 6, 2012

Bratwurst Bust

The beloved Nürnberger Bratwurst is the latest victim of escalating tensions over Iran's nuclear program. German butchers complained that the diplomatic crisis was driving up the price of sausage casing. In shock news for Germans everywhere, the sausage industry is feeling the rising cost of importing sheep intestines from Iran, leading Nürnberger Bratwurst producer Claus Steiner reported.

The Nürnberger Bratwurst is made of finely ground pork, cased in intestinal lining and seasoned with marjoram. By European Union regulations, it can only be called a Nürnberger Bratwurst if it's made in the Nuremberg area.

Sheep intestinal lining, a key ingredient in making the sausage, is largely imported from Iran, which has a 500-year history of trading animal by-products. This may change, as the price of sheep gut has almost tripled during the past 18 months.

A year and a half ago 90 meters of intestinal lining cost just €6.30, but now the same length costs a whopping €17.20. War is hell.

The Scale of Things

Received this link from Bud. It is a fascinating look at the scale of everything from things so small that they cannot yet be seen with modern technology to things so large that they are yet to be seen with technology. Slide the scale slowly or you will miss many details. LINK

Six Interesting People Facts

Shirley Temple always had 56 curls in her hair.

Isaac Asimov is the only author to have a book in every Dewey-decimal category.

Hulk Hogan's real name is Terry Bollea.

The Earl of Condom was a knighted personal physician to England's King Charles II in the mid-1600's. The Earl was requested to produce a method to protect the King from syphilis.

Stalin was only five feet, four inches tall, his left foot had webbed toes, and his left arm was noticeably shorter than his right.

The only real person to be represented with a Pez head was Betsy Ross.

Annie Get Your Gun

Phoebe Anne Oakley Mozee was five feet tall. She was also a crack shot with rifles, pistols, and shotguns. Annie Oakley was born in a log cabin in Patterson Township, Ohio and starred in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show for seventeen years.

March 5, 1922, Annie broke all existing records for women’s trap shooting by hitting 98 out of 100 clay targets thrown at 16 yards while at a match at the Pinehurst Gun Club in North Carolina. She hit the first fifty, missed the 51st and 67th.

In one day she used a .22 rifle to hit 4,772 glass balls out of 5,000 tossed in the air. She could hit the thin side of a playing card from 90 feet and puncture it at least five times before it hit the ground. It was this display that named free tickets with holes punched in them, Annie Oakleys.

She was immortalized in Annie Get Your Gun, which was later made into a musical for the stage. In 1985, another film, Annie Oakley, was made for TV. It included silent-film footage of the record-breaking sharp-shooter, taken by Thomas Edison. There was also a weekly TV show about her during the fifties.

Mar 2, 2012

Happy Friday

Work like you don’t need the money. Love like you have never been hurt. Dance like nobody’s watching.

I am working and loving and dancing my way toward a Happy Friday!

Happy Texas Independence Day

Today is the celebration of the adoption of the Texas Declaration of Independence on March 2, 1836. Settlers in Mexican Texas officially broke from Mexico, creating the Republic of Texas.

Baseball Clothing Rules

Basketball and hockey coaches wear business suits on the sidelines. Football coaches wear team-branded shirts and jackets and often ill-fitting pleated khakis. Baseball managers are the only ones who wear the same outfit as their players.

It goes back to the earliest days of the game, when the person known as the manager was the business manager, the guy who kept the books in order and the road trips on schedule.

The person we call the manager today, who arranges the roster and decides when to pull a pitcher, was known as the captain. He was usually also on the team as a player. There were also a few captains who didn’t play for the team and stuck to making decisions in the dugout, and they usually wore suits. With the passing of time, it became less common for the captain to play and on most teams they had strictly managerial roles. The rules do not state that a manager should wear a uniform or not.


Jumbo was a large African Bush Elephant, born 1861 in the French Sudan, imported to a Paris zoo, transferred to the London Zoo in 1865, and sold in 1882 to P. T. Barnum, for the circus. The giant elephant's name is now a common word 'jumbo', meaning large in size.


 In February 1946, the first ever general purpose digital electronic computer was dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania.  The machine was called the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).  It cost over $500,000 ($6 million today), weighed about 57,000 pounds and took up 1800 square feet.  It had 17,468 vacuum tubes, 70,000 resistors, 7,200 diodes, 10,000 capacitors, and 5 million hand soldered joints. It used enough electricity to power 114 homes. The longest time between vacuum tube failures was 4 days and 20

The first task it was to perform calculations pertaining to the development of the hydrogen bomb. It stayed in service for nine years.