The Republic of Texas was an independent sovereign nation in North America, which existed after gaining independence from Mexico March 2, 1836 and lasted until February 19, 1846. It was bordered by the nation of Mexico to the southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast, the two US states of Louisiana and Arkansas to the east and northeast, and the United States territories encompassing the current US states of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, and New Mexico to the north and west.
In 1839, Texas became the first nation in the world to enact a
homestead exemption under which a person's primary residence could
not be seized by creditors.
On March 1, 1845, US President John Tyler signed a bill that would
authorize the United States to annex the Republic of Texas on
December 29, 1845. On October 13, 1845, a large majority of voters
in the Republic approved both the American offer and the proposed
constitution. As part of the Compromise of 1850 Texas dropped claims
to territory which included parts of present-day Colorado, Kansas,
Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Wyoming. On February 19, 1846, power was
permanently transferred from the Republic of Texas to the State of
John Tyler, born in 1790, has two living grandsons: Lyon Gardiner
Tyler Jr., born in 1924, and Harrison Ruffin Tyler, born in 1928.
He also fathered 15 children, more than any president in history.
Thanks to Mike McCormick for the trivia addition.
The compromise also stated that up to four additional states could
be created from Texas' territory with the consent of the State of
Texas. In addition, Texas did not have to surrender its public lands
to the federal government. It did not cede any public lands within
its current boundaries. The land in Texas owned by the federal
government was subsequently purchased by it. This means Texas has
control over oil reserves and control over offshore oil reserves
that run out to 9 nautical miles.