Showing posts with label Cannabis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Cannabis. Show all posts

Mar 17, 2017

CBD vs. THC

Different strains of cannabis have different and higher CBD or higher THC levels.
CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, the cannabinoid second only to THC when it comes to average volume. Recently, research has shown CBD to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety properties without the psychoactive effects, such as getting high. Its use looks promising to combat  Crohn’s disease, PTSD, multiple sclerosis, and Dravet’s Syndrome.

THC is one of over 480 different compounds present in the cannabis plant. So far about 85 have been identified as cannabinoids The most well known of these compounds is the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.
Bottom line, THC is the stuff in cannabis that makes us high, while CBD is the stuff in cannabis that is used for medicinal purposes and does not make us high. Neither has a lethal dose.


Incidentally, marijuana is the most-consumed illegal drug in Germany, but as of this month, March, cannabis has expanded medical and legal allowances. Now doctors can simply write their patients a prescription if, for example, they suffer from chronic pain or a serious loss of appetite due to an illness. German health insurance providers also now must cover the costs of cannabis treatments.

Nov 25, 2016

Cannabis Genotype vs. Phenotype

There are there are defining characteristics for every strain, but each plant uniquely expresses genes according to its garden environment. That is why the government is so determined to control the production process, from seed to distribution.

Two things influence the structural formation of any given cannabis plant: genetics and environment. The plant’s genetic makeup, also called a genotype, acts as a blueprint for growth: it allows a spectrum of physical possibilities, but it is up to the environment to induce these characteristics.

The physical expression of a genotype is referred to as a phenotype, which is simply defined as the traits that the environment pulls out from the plant’s genetic code. Everything from color, shape, smell, and resin production are affected by the environment.

Cannabis breeding took a major turn during the 1970s and 1980s when federal anti-cannabis sentiments peaked, driving cultivation from the great outdoors to inside. Indoor gardens, raised by soil, electric lights, and hydroponic systems, produce a bulk of the cannabis in the market today. The plant’s phenotypic expression depends on: nutrients, temperature, the amount and angle of light, soil type, photoperiod length, time of harvest, and the distance between the plant and light source. These and other conditions affect a plant’s characteristics.

Narrowing diversity even further, growers during this time were primarily motivated by THC content and selectively chose this characteristic over other important chemical constituents like CBD.

Nov 18, 2016

Indica vs. Sativa vs. Hybrid

With the recent election, another sea change is beginning. That change stems from a number of states approving legislation for the legalization of marijuana, either for recreational or medical purposes.
It seems odd to me that any substance can be classified as either medical or recreational. I guess that pouring vodka on a wound to cleanse it might be considered medical use and drinking it might be considered recreational. However, marijuana can be ingested the same way for both purposes. The practical distinction appears to be political.
Cannabis classification has been around for a long time. Early taxonomic distinctions between Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa began in the 18th century when differences between their structure and resin production were first noted. The hybrid category was adopted later on, as growers began mixing genetics from different geographic locations. In addition to the major strains, each can have many minor strains that produce different effects.

Indica strains are known for being physically sedating, perfect for relaxing with a movie or as a nightcap before bed.

Sativas typically provide more invigorating, uplifting cerebral effects that pair well with physical activity, social gatherings, and creative projects.

Hybrids tend to fall somewhere in between the indica-sativa spectrum, depending on the traits they inherit from their parent strains.
Other unique attributes:
Indica and sativa plants have differences in appearance.
Sativa plants have a longer maturation cycle than indica plants.
Indica strains tend to produce heavier yields than sativa strains.
Indica and sativa strains tend to have different flavor profiles.

Because of these differences, medical patients using cannabis to treat their symptoms and conditions may also consider a strain’s classification. A patient suffering from fatigue or depression may use a sativa during the day, and another treating pain and insomnia will likely choose an indica strain at nighttime.


Incidentally, most countries use the word cannabis vs. the US use of the word marijuana. Also, the US stock market and valuations for cannabis companies is vigorously growing. See also my blog LINK

Apr 22, 2016

Hemp vs. Cannabis vs. Marijuana

 The two subspecies of cannabis are known as Cannabis indica (hemp) and Cannabis sativa (hemp and marijuana). A third type found mainly in Russia, Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content than either C. sativa or C. indica, so it is rarely grown for recreational use and the shorter stature of C. ruderalis limits its application for hemp production. Cannabis ruderalis strains are high in the cannabÑ–noid cannabidiol, so they are grown by some medical marijuana users. (The term, marijuana originally spelled as "marihuana", "mariguana", etc., originated in Mexican Spanish.) Marijuana is now mostly an American term.

Tall, sturdy cannabis plants were grown by early civilizations to make a variety of foods, oils, and textiles. These plants were bred with other plants with the same characteristics, leading to the type of cannabis known as hemp. It is virtually impossible to get high on hemp, although it does have some medicinal benefits.

Other plants were recognized for being psychoactive and were bred selectively for medical and religious purposes. This led to unique varieties of cannabis known as marijuana.

The core agricultural differences between medical cannabis and hemp are largely in their genetic parentage and cultivation environment. Marijuana growers usually try to maintain stable light, temperature, humidity, CO2 and oxygen levels, among other things. Hemp is usually grown outdoors to maximize its size and yield, and less attention is paid to individual plants.

Cannabis plants contain unique compounds called cannabinoids. Current research has revealed over 60 different cannabinoids so far, but THC is the most well known. THC is credited with causing the marijuana high. While marijuana plants contain high levels of THC, hemp contains very little.

Countries like Canada have set the maximum THC content of hemp at 0.3%. Any cannabis with higher THC levels is considered marijuana. Medical marijuana produces anywhere between 5-20% THC on average, with some strains up to 25-30% THC.

Before 1910 Bristol-Meyer’s Squib and Eli Lilly included cannabis and cannabis extracts in their medicines to cure common household ailments. The US Bureau of Narcotics, during the 1930s, used the name “marijuana” when campaigning against the plant, and showing its new “foreign” identity. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 federally criminalized the cannabis plant in every US state.

All cannabis is federally illegal to produce in the United States. Both hemp and marijuana are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act (non-psychoactive hemp is not included in Schedule I). It is legal to import hemp products into the United States. The US Drug Enforcement Administration is preparing to decide whether cannabis should be reclassified under federal law during The first half of 2016.

In the US, eight states allow people with certain medical conditions to use marijuana. Seventeen states have passed laws opening the door to marijuana use as long as the drug is extremely low in THC, the intoxicating ingredient. Five states have removed the potential for jail time for those caught with small amounts of the drug.  Some states both have approved marijuana use by sick people and removed jail sentences for recreational users, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada and Rhode Island. Four states and Washington, D.C., allow marijuana possession in small amounts by adults over 21 for any reason, including  Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington.

Outside the US, hemp is grown in more than 30 countries. In 2011, the top hemp-producing country was China, followed by Chile and the European Union. Hemp production is also expanding in Canada.

Marijuana remains illegal in most countries, but a few, such as Israel and Canada, have recently started to regulate marijuana as a medicine. Legalization supporters consider possession either legal or tolerated in Argentina, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, Uruguay, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Hemp can be made into wax, plastic, resin, rope, cloth paper, fuel, detergent, paint, snacks, flour, beer, insulation, carpeting, paneling, auto parts, and an estimated 25,000 products. Thomas Jefferson drafted both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution on hemp paper.