Verbal irony: This is when the speaker says one thing but means another (often contrary) thing. The most well known type of verbal irony is sarcasm. For example: “He is as funny as a broken rib”.
Tragic irony: Tragic irony occurs only in fiction. It is when
the words or actions of a character contradict the real situation
with the full knowledge of the spectators. For example: In Romeo and
Juliet, Romeo mistakenly believes that Juliet has killed herself, so
he poisons himself. Juliet awakens to find Romeo dead so she kills
herself with his knife.
Dramatic Irony: In drama, this type of irony is when the
spectator is given a piece of information that one or more of the
characters are unaware of. For example: in Pygmalion, we know that
Eliza is a prostitute, but the Higgins family does not.
Situational Irony: Situational irony is when there is a
difference between the expected result and the actual result. Take
for example this account of the attempted assassination of Ronald
Reagan: As aides rushed to push Reagan into his car, the bullet
ricocheted off the bullet-proof car, then hit the President in the
chest, grazed a rib and lodged in his lung, just inches from his
heart. The bullet proof car was intended to protect the president,
but nearly caused his death by deflecting the bullet.