The root of the English word cheese comes from the Latin caseus, which also gives us the word casein, the milk protein that is the basis of cheese. In Old English, caseus was c?ese or c?se, which became chese in Middle English, finally becoming cheese in Modern English. Caseus is also the root word for cheese in other languages, including queso in Spanish, kaas in Dutch, käse in German, and queijo in Portuguese. Caseus Formatus, or molded (formed) cheese, brought us formaticum, the term the Romans employed for the hard cheese used as supplies for the legionaries. From this root comes the French fromage and the Italian formaggio.
Cheese consumption predates recorded history, with scholars
believing it began as early as 8000 BC, when sheep were first
domesticated, to as late as 3000 BC. It is believed to have been
discovered in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkic tribes in Central
Asia, where foodstuffs were commonly stored in animal hides or
organs for transport. Milk stored in animal stomachs would have
separated into curds and whey by movement and the rennet and
bacteria naturally present.
monks were responsible for inventing some of the classic varieties
of cheese we know today. According to the British Cheese Board,
Britain has approximately 700 distinct local cheeses. It is thought
that France and Italy have perhaps 400 each. The varying flavors,
colors, and textures of cheese come from many factors, including the
type of milk used, the type of bacteria or acids used to separate
the milk, the length of aging, and the addition of other flavorings
The United States is the top producer of cheese in the world, with
Wisconsin and California leading the states in production. Although
the US produces the most cheese, Greece and France lead the pack in
cheese consumption per capita, averaging 27.3 and 24.0 kilograms per
person in 2003 respectively. In the same year, the average US
citizen consumed around 14.1 kg, although cheese consumption in the
US has tripled since 1970 and is continuing to increase.