Sep 28, 2013

Happy Friday

Trust is gained. Respect is earned.

I trust that I will respect having a Happy Friday!

What's in a Name, Poker

The card game “Poker” first was called such around the early 19th century. There are two leading theories where the name originated that more or less coalesce into one likely origin. The first theory is that it came from the name of a French card game that resembled Poker called “Poque”. There was also a German card game that is similar to Poker called “Pochspiel”, which got its name from the German word “pochen” (also where the French “Poque” got its name). “Pochen” at the time meant “to brag or bluff”.

Most Poker historians tend to lean towards the French “Poque” origin, in terms of where the game acquired its name, because Poker seems to have first popped up and spread from New Orleans in the very early 19th century. The French game of Poque was commonly played here.

The term Jackpot originally popped up around the 1870s referencing “Jacks or Better” Poker. This is much like traditional five card draw, except in this case, if a player does not have a pair of “jacks or better” in the first round of betting, he has to pass. This does not mean he has to be holding a pair of jacks, queens, or the like. It just means that he has to be holding cards that will beat a pair of tens. Once the first person who has that has placed a bet in the opening betting round, the rest of the participants are free to bet as they will, regardless of the cards they hold. The “pot” in this game can sometimes grow particularly large as potentially multiple antes are required before betting can start. Ante comes from the Latin “ante”, meaning “before”, which came from the Proto-Indo-European “*anti”, meaning “facing opposite, before, or in front of”. I bet you did not know all that.

Gene Autry

 To the strains of 'Back in the Saddle Again', by Ray Whitley and Gene Autry, TV viewers were treated to the first performance of The Gene Autry Show in September, 1950. Autry and his sidekick, Pat Buttram maintained law and order in the US Southwest for six years. Gene sang just like he did in the movies and his horse, Champion, would do amazing horse tricks while Pat Buttram would invariably get into silly situations. Gene Autry and friends hopped back in the saddle weekly until 1956.

Autry went on to become a Country Music Association Hall of Famer, own Golden West Broadcasting and the California Angels baseball team and he is the only person to have five Hollywood Walk of Fame stars (film, radio, TV, stage, records). He died October 2, 1998.

Wordology, Jaywalking

 For those not familiar with this term, such as many people outside of the United States, jaywalking means a pedestrian crosses a street without regard to traffic regulations.

For instance, depending on where one lives, it may be against the law to cross a street where there is a crosswalk nearby, but the person chooses not to use it. Alternatively even at a crosswalk, it is often illegal to cross if there is a “Don’t Walk” signal flashing.

Contrary to popular belief, the term jaywalking does not derive from the shape of the letter J. It comes from the fact that “Jay” used to be a generic term for someone who was dull, rube, unsophisticated, poor, or a simpleton.

To Jaywalk was to be stupid by crossing the street in an unsafe place or way, or some person visiting the city who was not familiar with the rules of the road for pedestrians in an urban environment. As stated in the January 25, 1937 New York Times, “In many streets like Oxford Street, for instance, the jaywalker wanders complacently in the very middle of the roadway as if it was a country lane.”

Another Egg Face

 I know at least one person has been wondering about which end of the egg comes out first. Not exactly breaking news, but the egg initially moves through the chicken's oviduct small end first. When it reaches the uterus, the shell calcifies, rotates 180 degrees, and moves on big end first. When the muscles of the chicken's uterine and vaginal walls finally contract to squeeze the small end, it helps to expel the egg forward.

FDA Food Label Folly

The US FDA uses common words to mean something different. FDA evaluates certain terms with reference to a typical portion size known as an RACC (Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed). An RACC of eggnog, for example, is ½ cup. For croutons, it’s 7 grams, and for scrambled eggs, 100 grams. Many labels use artificially low or high portion size to reduce or increase the amount of calories, fat, etc. perceived by the consumer.

Imitation - A food only has to be labeled as “imitation” if it has a lower amount of protein or some other essential nutrient than the food it’s trying to look like.

Free -  To be labeled “free” of calories, the food must have less than 5 per RACC. For fat and sugar, less than .5 grams. For sodium, less than 5 milligrams. Also, the food must somehow be processed to be “free” of those things in order to get the simple “free” label. You can not have “fat free lettuce,” only “lettuce, a fat free food.”

Low - Low is also defined with respect to set portion sizes and varies with whether it refers to calories, fat, or sodium. For fat it’s less than 3 grams. For calories, it’s less than 40, unless it is a prepared meal, in which case it’s 120 per 100 grams.

Reduced/less - Sometimes manufacturers want to make a relational claim about a food—not just that it’s “low” in some substance, but lower than it usually is (which may mean it doesn't meet the standard for “low”). Relational claims are evaluated with respect to a reference food. A reference food should be the same type of food, as yogurt vs. yogurt. The “reduced” substance must be less than 25 percent of what it is in the reference food.

Light/lite - This is also evaluated with respect to a reference food, and a rather complicated set of conditions is taken into account for different substances. For example, if a “light” product has more than half of its calories from fat, the fat must be reduced by half per reference serving amount. If less than half its calories come from fat, it can be “light” if the calories per serving are reduced by 1/3. Sometimes foods that meet “low” requirements can also be labeled as “light.”

High - High means that the food has 20 percent or more of the recommended daily value for that nutrient per reference serving.

Good Source - “Good source of” is a little lower than “high.” A food with this label should have 10 to 19 percent of the recommended daily value.

 Lean - “Lean” applies to seafoods or meats that have less than combined specified levels of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol (10g, 4.5g, and 95mg, respectively).

Natural - The FDA has not established an official definition, but endorses the general understanding that it implies nothing artificial or synthetic has been added that would not normally be expected to be added.


Did you know you can have your DNA analyzed for just $99? It used to cost $10,000. The web site has the information. Interesting information about diseases you may be inclined toward, based on your DNA. It also has Ancestry information, risk for some genetic diseases, cancer, and some possible drug responses you may have.

It takes a week to get the kit and a few seconds to swab your mouth, then 5 - 6 weeks to get results. I sent for my kit this week.

Four Kinds of Irony

Verbal irony: This is when the speaker says one thing but means another (often contrary) thing. The most well known type of verbal irony is sarcasm. For example: “He is as funny as a broken rib”.

Tragic irony: Tragic irony occurs only in fiction. It is when the words or actions of a character contradict the real situation with the full knowledge of the spectators. For example: In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo mistakenly believes that Juliet has killed herself, so he poisons himself. Juliet awakens to find Romeo dead so she kills herself with his knife.

Dramatic Irony: In drama, this type of irony is when the spectator is given a piece of information that one or more of the characters are unaware of. For example: in Pygmalion, we know that Eliza is a prostitute, but the Higgins family does not.

Situational Irony: Situational irony is when there is a difference between the expected result and the actual result. Take for example this account of the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan: As aides rushed to push Reagan into his car, the bullet ricocheted off the bullet-proof car, then hit the President in the chest, grazed a rib and lodged in his lung, just inches from his heart. The bullet proof car was intended to protect the president, but nearly caused his death by deflecting the bullet.

Wordology, Cogitate

Here is a once common verb that seems to haven fallen from our language. It means to take careful thought or think carefully about. Also, to think earnestly or studiously; reflect; ponder; meditate: as, to cogitate a means of escape. In addition, to revolve in the mind; think about attentively; meditate on; hence, devise or plan: as, he is cogitating mischief (something I never did as a child).

Yogurt Debate

Almost 28% of Americans eat yogurt on a daily basis.  Yogurt comes from milk that has healthy bacteria added for fermentation. During this process, yogurt thickens and takes on a slightly tangy taste. Yogurt is then strained through a cheesecloth, which allows the liquid whey part of milk to drain off. Regular yogurt is strained twice and Greek yogurt is strained three times to remove more whey, making it thicker.

Greek yogurt has almost double the protein of regular yogurt. Eight ounces of Greek yogurt has about 20 grams of protein and regular yogurt 11-13 grams. Greek yogurt has fewer carbohydrates than regular yogurt. Regular yogurt has about three times the calcium of Greek yogurt. Greek yogurt has half the sodium of regular yogurt. Plain, nonfat versions of Greek and regular yogurt have a similar calorie count per serving. Greek yogurt does not curdle when heated like regular yogurt. Greek yogurt, on average costs twice as much as regular yogurt. Bottom line, for one serving a day, not much difference, except a little texture, maybe taste, and a much higher cost.

Sep 21, 2013

Happy Friday

"The best things in life aren't things."

You do not need things to have a Happy Friday!

Granny Smith Apples

Fall is the perfect time of year to enjoy fresh apples and apple cider. While working on her farm near Sydney, Australia, Maria Smith found a small sapling growing where she had discarded some rotten apples. She replanted the tree and it eventually bore fruit, green apples with a tart flavor. She shared these apples with her friends and neighbors and they grew in fame. Maria died in 1870 but her “Granny Smith” apples are still popular around the world.

US National Weather Service

It has its beginnings in the early history of the United States. Weather has always been important to the citizens of this country and especially during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The beginning of the National Weather Service we know today started on February 9th, 1870, when President Ulysses S. Grant signed a joint resolution of Congress authorizing the Secretary of War to establish a national weather service. This resolution required the Secretary of War "to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories... and for giving notice on the northern (Great) Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms."

It was decided that this agency would be placed under the Secretary of War, because military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness, regularity, and accuracy in the required observations. Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the Signal Service Corps under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Meyer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce.

Later that year, the first systematized, synchronous weather observations ever taken in the U.S. were made by "observing-sergeants" of the Army Signal Service at 22 stations and telegraphed to Washington. An agency was born which would affect the daily lives of most of the citizens of the United States through its forecasts and warnings.

The National Weather Service, once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States government. It is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland.

The Climate Prediction Center is responsible for all of the NWS's climate-related forecasts. Their mission is to "serve the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains." Their products cover time scales from a week to seasons, extending into the future as far as technically feasible, and cover the land, the ocean, and the atmosphere, extending into the stratosphere. Most of their products cover the Contiguous U.S. and Alaska. Additionally, Weather Forecast Offices issue daily and monthly climate reports for official climate stations within their area of responsibility. These generally include recorded highs, lows and other information. This information is considered preliminary until certified by the National Climatic Data Center.

Naked and Nude

Naked implies that a person is unprotected or vulnerable. It also describes something that is unadorned or without embellishment, as in the naked truth. Nude, on the other hand, means one thing: unclothed.

Think of it this way: if you doff your duds to pose while descending a staircase for a tasteful painting done by a respected artist, then you are nude. If a bunch of paparazzi suddenly burst in through the studio door and take your picture without permission, you are naked.

Cracking Another Egg Myth

The nutritional value of the egg and its yolk has been debated by nutritionists for years. Years ago, the egg received a bad reputation with regard to cardiovascular health, as one large egg contains approximately 187 milligrams of cholesterol. However, most research has shown that cholesterol found in foods isn't fully to blame for increased LDL cholesterol in the body.

“Eggs are an animal product, and they do contain cholesterol, but actually, cholesterol in foods doesn't affect our blood cholesterol as much as saturated fat does. Cholesterol in food, in general you do want to avoid, but it’s not necessarily the main culprit of high cholesterol." Lisa Cimperman, registered dietitian for UH Case Medical Center.

Compared to other animal products, the average egg actually contains relatively low amounts of saturated fats – approximately 1.6 grams per egg yolk. Additionally, various studies from the Harvard School of Public Health and the British Nutrition Foundation have found that eggs have clinically insignificant effects on blood cholesterol, and are not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Many consumers are still concerned over the yolk’s fatty content, so rather than eat the full egg, they often eat just the egg’s albumin, the egg white. However, some dietitians argue it is important to consume both the egg’s fat and protein, as the combination can have positive health benefits for blood sugar.

“You want the fat, because it not only satiates you, but also slows the absorption of your food, so you stay fuller longer, and it won’t increase blood sugar. A lot of people have toast with just egg whites, but it’s giving them a quicker rise in their blood sugar, but if you have the yolk with it or a different form of fat like avocado, your blood sugar won’t rise as quickly, because it takes longer to break the food down.” Laura Cipullo registered dietitian. Egg yolks are a good source of vitamin A and iron, along with a host of other nutrients. Eggs are also good sources of B vitamin, thiamine and selenium. Eggs also pair very well with bacon.

Wordology, Aptronym

Have you noticed that some people seem to have very appropriate and entirely coincidental names? Names such Usain Bolt (Jamaican sprinter), Lord Brain (brain surgeon), or Alto Reed (saxophonist). This is called an aptronym, as in 'aptly named'.

Some people believe that the name can influence life decisions leading a person to work in a field relating to their name. This is called 'nominative determinism'.

Five Household Uses for Tea Bags

Tea is a great, natural way to clean and polish wood furniture. Brew a full pot of tea and allow it to cool to room temperature. Then dip a light colored, clean towel in the tea and gently rub the wet end of the towel along the surface of wooden furniture. The tea removes light stains and scratches and leaves the furniture shining.

If you wipe mirrors down with room temperature tea, they will be clean and streak-free. A microfiber towel or newspaper both work well.

Empty wet tea leaves into a bowl and sprinkle them across the fireplace before cleaning. The wet tea leaves absorb the ash, making it easier to clean the fireplace and with less dust.

Add a few used tea bags to the bottom of a planter before adding soil. The tea bags absorb excess water.

Used tag bags actually absorb odors in small spaces, much like baking soda does. Let tea bags dry completely and add to sock drawers or toss a bag into shoes or sneakers. The bags soak up odors for a few weeks.

Henry VIII Wives

He actually had just two wives, not six. Henry’s fourth marriage to Anne was annulled, as the marriage was never consummated, also Anne was betrothed to Francis, Duke of Lorraine. At the time ‘betrothal’ would bar the individual from marriage. That leaves 5 wives. Henry’s second marriage to Anne Boleyn was declared illegal by the pope, because the king was still married to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. That brings it to four. Henry, as the head of the church of England, declared himself that his first marriage was invalid on the grounds that a man cannot sleep with his brother’s widow. Now down to three. He did the same with his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, leaving just two wives.

Close, But No Cigar

This  means to fall short of a successful outcome. It was first used in the United States in the early 1900s and is likely the phrase originated at fairgrounds.

Much like fairs today, booths would be set up and fair workers would host difficult to win games for fair goers to try. Games of strength, accuracy, and skill were played by men and women. Back then, prizes were for mom and dad, and cigars were a very common prize given out to winners. The phrase apparently originated when someone came close to winning one of the games, but ultimately lost and so did not win a cigar. Workers yelled it out out when people lost, trying to draw crowds and encourage the person to try again. As the fairs traveled, the phrase spread rapidly and it began to be used any time someone did not meet expectations.


Cuttlefish have eyes shaped like the letter ‘w’. Although they cannot see color, they can perceive the polarization of light, which enhances their perception of contrast.

They have full use of their eyes before they are born.

Sep 13, 2013

Happy Friday

Talk is cheap, but actions are priceless.

My actions always lead to a Happy Friday!

Seven Common Quotes Debunked

Wrong - Money is the root of all evil.
Correct - “For the love of money is the root of all evil.”

Wrong - Nice guys finish last.
Correct - “Why, they’re the nicest guys in the world! And where are they? In seventh place!“

Wrong - Play it again, Sam.
Correct - “Play it once Sam. . . play it, Sam.“

Wrong - Theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do or die.
Correct -  “Theirs not to reason why, theirs but to do and die.”

Wrong - Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned.
Correct - “Heav’n has no rage, like love to hatred turn’d/Nor hell a fury, like a woman scorn’d.”

Wrong - Houston, we have a problem.
Correct - “Houston, we’ve had a problem”

Wrong - Mirror, mirror on the wall, who’s the fairest of them all?
Correct - “Magic Mirror, on the wall, who is the fairest of them all?”

Who Owns What Auto Brands

During the 1990s Volkswagen acquired Lamborghini, Bentley, and Bugatti. VW also owns Audi, Ducati Motorcycles, MAN (Uzbekistan), Scania, Porsche, SEAT (Spain), and Skoda (Czech) brands, as well as 19.9% of Suzuki. All together, Volkswagen owns 340 subsidiary companies, with 550,000 employees. Interesting to know that Porsche produced the first VW Beetle. Seems VW transformed itself from beetle to elephant.

Other interesting brand owners:
BMW owns: BMW, Mini, and Rolls Royce.
Fiat owns: Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Chrysler, Dodge, Ferrari, Jeep, Lancia, Maserati, and Ram.
Hyundai owns: Hyundai, Kia. (It is pronounced Hun-Day, like Sunday)
Tata Motors (India) owns: Tata, Jaguar, and Land Rover.
Renault owns Nissan, which owns Infiniti.
Toyota owns: Lexus, Scion, Daihatsu, Hino Motors, Isuzu, and a stake in Fuji Industries (Subaru's parent).
Geely owns Volvo (Chinese Zhejiang Geely Holding Group).

Taco Bell Meat

Taco Bell says its meat is 88% beef.  Other ingredients include water to keep it juicy and moist (3%). Mexican spices and flavors, including salt, chili pepper, onion powder, tomato powder, sugar, garlic powder, and cocoa powder (4%). The rest is oats, caramelized sugar, yeast, citric acid, and other ingredients (5%).

Fruits and Veggies

Beans, corn, bell peppers, peas, eggplant, pumpkins, cucumbers, squash, and tomatoes are all fruits. That is because, botanically speaking, fruits are the part of flowering plants that contain the seeds and are the means by which such plants disseminate those seeds. So even nuts are fruits. Grains, which are really over-sized seeds are also fruits.

Also, botanically speaking, vegetables are all the other parts of the plant, including the leaves (e.g. lettuce and spinach), roots (e.g. potatoes and carrots), bulbs (e.g. onions and garlic), flowers (e.g. artichokes, broccoli, and cauliflower), and stems (e.g. rhubarb and celery). Also, botanically speaking, some spices, such as allspice and chilies, are fruits.

If it is from a plant and has seeds (or would have seeds if it wasn't genetically engineered or cultivated to not have them, as with seedless grapes), it is a fruit; if it does not naturally have seeds, it is a vegetable.

The reason we learn peppers, corn, and cucumbers are vegetables and are found in the veggie section is due to tradition. Culinary traditions (with no scientific value) tell us the part of the plant we are eating does not matter, taste does. Fruits are generally sweet tasting and vegetables are more savory and less sweet. Fruits are also typically served as part of dessert or as snacks, and vegetables are often part of the main dish.

Scientific classification system makes a clear dividing line between fruits and vegetables, while the culinary system of classification is much more ambiguous. Not to be outdone, The United States Supreme Court entered the debate and gave a legal verdict about whether a tomato should be classified as a vegetable or a fruit. They decided unanimously, in Nix vs. Hedden, 1883, that a tomato is a vegetable, even though it is a botanical fruit. I use a much more simple method - If I like it, it's a fruit, if I do not like it, it's a vegetable.


Henri Nestlé, started his company as a pioneer in the baby food industry. He was was likely inspired by his family’s history as 7 of his 13 siblings died before reaching adulthood.

Nestlé sold the company to his business associates and retired just seven years after he founded the company. Though the name “Nestlé” has since gone on to be associated with many different products, mostly chocolate based products and other sweets, the only Nestlé to be involved with the company left when their only product was baby formula.

Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is really just that- the pressure at which blood moves around the body in your arteries. The easiest and least invasive way to test the pressure is to momentarily stop the flow of blood and then slowly allow it to begin again. The pressure at which it begins to flow is the highest pressure the blood exerts on your artery walls.

Medical professionals do this by using a blood pressure meter known as a Sphygmomanometer. They encircle a limb, usually an arm, with a balloon-like device known as a blood pressure cuff. While pumping the cuff up, they use a stethoscope to listen for a heart beat past where the cuff is cutting off blood flow. When they no longer hear the heart beating, they slowly release the pressure while watching the pressure gauge.

When they start to hear the heart beat again, this is the top number of blood pressure, known as systolic pressure. They continue to release the pressure until they once again, no longer hear the heart beating, this is the bottom number of blood pressure, known as diastolic pressure. Together these numbers tell them two things: the pressure that is inside arteries between heartbeats (the bottom number) and the pressure inside arteries when the heart squeezes (the top number).

Different disease processes like coronary artery disease can cause higher than normal blood pressure. Lower than normal blood pressures can be a sign of other disease processes, like shock caused by infection. The difference between top and bottom numbers, or a change in that difference, can also point to specific problems like too much fluid around the heart, not allowing it to work properly.

Combining this information with a person’s heart rate can also tell numerous other things that could be happening. If you have been in a car accident and have a lower than normal blood pressure and higher than normal heart rate, you could be bleeding internally. If you were in another car accident and have an extremely high blood pressure and a low heart rate, you could be bleeding in your brain. High blood pressure is not a disease or illness in and of itself. It is merely a symptom for other problems.


Nutrient labels on food products in the United States list their percentages based on a 2000 calorie per day diet. However, energy requirements can vary significantly based on age, sex, weight, height, physical activity, and base metabolic rate, ranging between 1000 to 4000 calories.

Another number on labels is the portion, or suggested serving size, which is also arbitrary and should be looked at closely. A package stating 90 calories on the front might show 90 calories per serving with three servings, so 270 total calories.

The Merck Manual states 1,600 calories per day are needed for young children and sedentary women; 2,000 for active adult women and sedentary men; and 2,400 for active adolescent boys and young men. These values are also a bit arbitrary, because the average person uses different amounts of energy almost daily. One day you might go for a hike and the next sit on the couch watching football. One month you could lose 5 pounds and increase your base metabolic rate in the process. The next month with the same caloric intake gain 10 pounds and decrease your base metabolic rate. Bottom line, the numbers are arbitrary and should be used with caution.

Mexican Independence

Most Americans think of Cinco de Mayo as a celebration of Mexican independence, along the same lines as the 4th of July, with many participating in the festivities merely for an excuse to drink margaritas. However, Cinco de Mayo actually commemorates a victory in battle against French occupying forces. In the spring of 1861, A powerful French battalion swept across the countryside until they were stopped in The Battle of Puebla at the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe by a much smaller Mexican group on May 5th. Unfortunately, the following year, the French returned with thirty thousand troops, took over Mexico, and installed Maximilian I as Emperor.

While it is an important celebration in Puebla, in other areas of Mexico it is somewhat less popular. Mexican Independence Day, a completely separate holiday, is celebrated on September 16th.

Tequila is the national drink of Mexico, a potent spirit made from the blue agave. Like champagne, which can only legally be produced in the Champagne region of France, tequila must be derived from agave grown only in very specific parts of Mexico. As the drink’s popularity has continued to rise throughout the world, Mexico has tried to maintain its control, claiming tequila is a “geographically indicated product” under intellectual property rights law. It seems other countries may soon be producing tequila, particularly China, which has areas that mimic Mexico’s very specific climate and soil.

A common misconception about tequila is that the bottle should feature a worm. This actually holds true only for mezcal, a similar drink made from agave. The worm is actually the larva of a moth called the Hypopta agavis that routinely infests agave. While there are some who make the claim that the worm somehow improves the flavor, it is more likely just a marketing ploy.

Sep 6, 2013

Happy Friday

Time is endless, but our slice of it is not. Savor every morsel.

Today I am savoring a Happy Friday!

Prison Break

Brazil offers prisoners an option to take four days off their sentence by reading a book and writing a report on it. They can get a reduction of up to 48 days per year. This is something every country should consider.

Kit Kat

It dates back to the 18th century, when mutton pies called Kit-Kats were served at the political Kit-Cat Club. The origins of today’s product go back to 1935, when a York based candy maker, Rowntree’s trademarked 'Kit Kat'. The Kit Cat, as it was called, was produced for a while, before being discontinued. Eventually, it relaunched and was relabeled as “Rowntree’s Chocolate Crisp” before being renamed to its modern title.

In the 1940’s Kit Kat was exported to Canada, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. In the 1970s, a new distribution factory was built in Germany to meet European demand and handle distribution. Agreements were established for Hershey to distribute in the US, and Fujiya to distribute in Japan. In 1988, Nestlé purchased Rowntree’s and Kit Kat with it. Nestlé has global control over the brand, except in North America, where Hershey has licensing rights to Kit Kat.

Eight Real People Inspired Food Names

We usually do not think about how foods are named, but here are a few inspired by their inventor, or other inspiration.
German Chocolate cake is named for an American, Sam German.
Boysenberry is named for Rudolph Boysen.
Eggs Benedict is named for Lemuel Benedict.
Tetrazzini is named for Louisa Tetrazzini.
Alfredo Sauce is named for Alfredo Di Lelio.
Nachos are name for Ignacio "Nacho" Anaya.
Clementine oranges named for Father Clément Rodier.
Chicken a la King named for E. Clark King.

I.E. and E.G.

What “i.e.” and “e.g.” actually mean, you start to see how they are distinct. Specifically, “i.e.” is an abbreviation for the Latin “id est”, more or less meaning “that is”. “E.g.” is an abbreviation for the Latin “exempli gratia”, meaning “for the sake of example”, or the short version, “for example”.

As a general rule, if you can substitute in “for example” where you've used “e.g.”, you are probably using it correctly. Likewise, if you can substitute in “that is” where you are using “i.e.”, you are also probably using it correctly.

The key distinction, with “e.g.” you are stating one or more examples, with “i.e.” you are not talking about anything but what you specifically say.

It is a mistake to include an “etc.” after an “e.g.” list, because “et cetera” is implied, so it shouldn't be included at the end of such a list.

They Never Said That

Sherlock Holmes Never Said, “Elementary, My Dear Watson.”
Captain Kirk never said, “Beam me up Scotty.”
Darth Vader never said, “Luke, I am your father”.
They said things that were similar, but they never actually said those exact words.

What's in a Name, Movie Trailers

The first movie trailers occurred at the end of the films. They were called “trailers” because the advertisements would be spliced directly on the end of the reels, so that the movie advertisement’s film trailed the actual film.

The first known movie trailer to appear in a theater was in November of 1913. It was made by Nils Granlund, advertising manager of Marcus Loew theaters in the United States. The trailer was for the musical The Pleasure Seekers, which was shortly to open on Broadway. In this trailer, he included short clips of rehearsals of the musical. This idea caught on and trailers began appearing routinely after films. This was particularly the case with cartoon shorts and serials that would often end in climactic situations where you needed to watch the next episode in the serial or cartoon to see what would happen. Thus, these trailers, in particular those that advertised the next episode, made a lot more sense at the end of the serial than at the beginning.

Movie studios realized that full film advertisements would be more effective if they showed up before the movie, instead of after, and by the end of the 1930s the switch had been made. Despite the industry’s sincerest attempts over the last 60 or 70 years to get the name changed from “trailers” to some form of “previews”, among industry professionals and English speaking audiences “trailer” is still the generally used term. Recently the general public has begun to use 'previews'.

Of the ten billion videos watched online, movie trailers rank third, after news and user created videos.

Origin of Pills

Before the turn of the 20th century, patients who needed medicine either took it as a liquid or a hard pill. However, the liquids often tasted terrible and the pills usually didn't even dissolve in patients’ stomachs. In 1875, William Upjohn, a University of Michigan student began experimenting with new pill formulas that would be more effective. He is the main reason pills are now such a convenient means of medication.

Mountain Goats are Not

Mountain goats, found only in North America, are an even-toed ungulate of the family Bovidae that includes antelopes, gazelles, and cattle. It is the only species in the genus Oreamnos. The name Oreamnos is derived from the Greek term oros, "mountain," or, oreas "mountain nymph". They are sometimes referred to as goat-antelopes.

They have woolly coats, cloven feet, and horns, but not the same kind as true goats. The fur is thicker and shaggier than that of a domesticated farm goat. Their hooves are specially built for climbing and descending mountain slopes A rubbery padding covers the bottom of their hooves and their horns are long and pointy.

They spend most of their time grazing and their diet includes grasses, herbs, sedges, ferns, mosses, lichens, and twigs and leaves from the low-growing shrubs in their high-altitude habitat.

Brussels Sprouts

If you hate the taste of Brussels sprouts it might be due to your DNA. Brussels sprouts are among the group of cabbages grown for edible buds. The leafy green vegetables are typically small, and look like miniature cabbages. The Brussels sprout has long been popular in Brussels, Belgium, and may have originated there.

In Europe, the largest producers are the Netherlands and Germany. Mexico tends to cultivate them in the Baja region from December through June.

Brussels sprouts have potent anticancer properties. Although boiling reduces the level of the anticancer compounds, steaming and stir frying do not result in significant loss.

Many people seem to not like Brussels sprouts. Scientists explain that there is a mutated gene possessed by about half of the population that prevents a person from tasting the bitter-tasting chemical used to grow Brussels sprouts. If a person does not possess this gene they can taste the chemical, thus making them much more likely to dislike Brussels sprouts. Apparently, I do not have that gene.