Showing posts sorted by relevance for query marijuana. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query marijuana. Sort by date Show all posts

Apr 22, 2016

Hemp vs. Cannabis vs. Marijuana

 The two subspecies of cannabis are known as Cannabis indica (hemp) and Cannabis sativa (hemp and marijuana). A third type found mainly in Russia, Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content than either C. sativa or C. indica, so it is rarely grown for recreational use and the shorter stature of C. ruderalis limits its application for hemp production. Cannabis ruderalis strains are high in the cannabÑ–noid cannabidiol, so they are grown by some medical marijuana users. (The term, marijuana originally spelled as "marihuana", "mariguana", etc., originated in Mexican Spanish.) Marijuana is now mostly an American term.

Tall, sturdy cannabis plants were grown by early civilizations to make a variety of foods, oils, and textiles. These plants were bred with other plants with the same characteristics, leading to the type of cannabis known as hemp. It is virtually impossible to get high on hemp, although it does have some medicinal benefits.

Other plants were recognized for being psychoactive and were bred selectively for medical and religious purposes. This led to unique varieties of cannabis known as marijuana.

The core agricultural differences between medical cannabis and hemp are largely in their genetic parentage and cultivation environment. Marijuana growers usually try to maintain stable light, temperature, humidity, CO2 and oxygen levels, among other things. Hemp is usually grown outdoors to maximize its size and yield, and less attention is paid to individual plants.

Cannabis plants contain unique compounds called cannabinoids. Current research has revealed over 60 different cannabinoids so far, but THC is the most well known. THC is credited with causing the marijuana high. While marijuana plants contain high levels of THC, hemp contains very little.

Countries like Canada have set the maximum THC content of hemp at 0.3%. Any cannabis with higher THC levels is considered marijuana. Medical marijuana produces anywhere between 5-20% THC on average, with some strains up to 25-30% THC.

Before 1910 Bristol-Meyer’s Squib and Eli Lilly included cannabis and cannabis extracts in their medicines to cure common household ailments. The US Bureau of Narcotics, during the 1930s, used the name “marijuana” when campaigning against the plant, and showing its new “foreign” identity. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 federally criminalized the cannabis plant in every US state.

All cannabis is federally illegal to produce in the United States. Both hemp and marijuana are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act (non-psychoactive hemp is not included in Schedule I). It is legal to import hemp products into the United States. The US Drug Enforcement Administration is preparing to decide whether cannabis should be reclassified under federal law during The first half of 2016.

In the US, eight states allow people with certain medical conditions to use marijuana. Seventeen states have passed laws opening the door to marijuana use as long as the drug is extremely low in THC, the intoxicating ingredient. Five states have removed the potential for jail time for those caught with small amounts of the drug.  Some states both have approved marijuana use by sick people and removed jail sentences for recreational users, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada and Rhode Island. Four states and Washington, D.C., allow marijuana possession in small amounts by adults over 21 for any reason, including  Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington.

Outside the US, hemp is grown in more than 30 countries. In 2011, the top hemp-producing country was China, followed by Chile and the European Union. Hemp production is also expanding in Canada.

Marijuana remains illegal in most countries, but a few, such as Israel and Canada, have recently started to regulate marijuana as a medicine. Legalization supporters consider possession either legal or tolerated in Argentina, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, India, Jamaica, Jordan, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, Uruguay, Germany, and the Netherlands.

Hemp can be made into wax, plastic, resin, rope, cloth paper, fuel, detergent, paint, snacks, flour, beer, insulation, carpeting, paneling, auto parts, and an estimated 25,000 products. Thomas Jefferson drafted both the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution on hemp paper.

Apr 12, 2019

Hashish vs. Marijuana

Hashish is also called ghanja or hash on the street. Hashish is derived from the dried resin (or kief) of the flowering tops of mature and unpollinated female cannabis plants.  These resin glands, known as trichomes or crystals, produce a powdery substance rich in the properties of cannabis. Kief is usually pressed into blocks known as cakes. These cakes are then smoked, with the consumer using a small amount of the block each time. Hash is smoked using pipes, or else it is vaporized and inhaled, or mixed with marijuana in joints.
Marijuana is made up of a mixture of the dried shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the Cannabis Sativa plant. Hash is made up of only the collected and compressed trichomes of the plant. These trichomes are the most potent part of the cannabis plant, so hashish is stronger than marijuana.

Marijuana may generally have a potency of 10-20 percent THC while hashish can range from 20 percent to 60 percent THC. Because they come from the same plants, if marijuana is legal, hashish is legal.

Mar 29, 2019

Cannabis, Hemp vs. Marijuana

One type of cannabis is high in the psychoactive cannabinoid THC, and low in the anti-psychoactive cannabinoid CBD. This type is popularly known as marijuana. Another type of cannabis is high in CBD and low in THC. Variants of this kind are called industrial hemp. They are both from the same species of plant, Cannabis Sativa L. They both have been bred for various characteristics and now also look different from each other. They both can be male or female or both, (in monoecious species).

During 1971, Canadian research scientist Ernest Small published a book The Species Problem in Cannabis. Although Small recognized there was not a natural point where the cannabinoid content could be used to differentiate hemp and marijuana, he drew a random number regarding different Cannabis varieties. From then on, his 0.3% THC became the magic number that separated hemp and marijuana.
Dana Larsen is one of Canada’s most respected and well-known advocates for cannabis reform. In his book, Cannabis in Canada: An Illustrated History, Larsen explores this magic number separating hemp and marijuana. “Small’s arbitrary 0.3 percent THC limit has become standard around the world as the official limit for legal hemp,” writes Larsen. “Small clearly noted that among the hundreds of strains he experimented with, ‘plants cultivated for fibre [sic], oil and birdseed frequently had moderate or high amounts of THC’… thus the worldwide 0.3 percent THC standard divider between marijuana and hemp is not based on which strains have the most agricultural benefit, nor is it based on an analysis of the THC level required for psychoactivity. It is based on an arbitrary decision of a Canadian scientist growing cannabis in Ottawa.”

Incidentally, hemp seeds are a good source of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. They have about a 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3, which is considered in the optimal range. Also regular consumption or use of commercially made hemp foods (such as seeds, cooking oil, cereals, milk, granola) or hemp products (lotions, shampoos, lip balms, etc.) will not show a positive result for THC on a drug test.

Sep 29, 2017

Cannabis History

US Drug Enforcement Administration Museum in Arlington, Virginia, states that the oldest written references to cannabis date back to 2727 B.C., when the Chinese  supposedly discovered the substance and used it medicinally. Ancient Taiwanese were using hemp fibers to decorate pottery about 10,000 years ago, according to "The Archaeology of Ancient China." The plant itself was in use in both Europe and Asia more than 10,000 years ago and grew naturally across both continents.

According to a recent study, the world's first-known pot dealers were the nomads of the Eastern European Steppe. The Yamnaya, traders from what is now Russia and Ukraine, may have traded cannabis throughout Europe and East Asia about 5,000 years ago.

Archaeological records show a spike in cannabis use in East Asia around 5,000 years ago, at the time when the nomadic Yamnaya established a trade route across the steppes. Yamnaya sites show signs of cannabis burning, suggesting they may have brought the habit of smoking marijuana with them as they moved about.

The difference between hemp and pot is a single genetic switch. Researchers from the University of Saskatchewan announced that they discovered the genetic alteration that allows psychoactive cannabis plants (cannabis sativa) to give users a high, compared to industrial hemp plants, which do not.

Industrial hemp plants are the same species as marijuana plants, but they do not produce a substance called tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). This is the precursor to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in pot. Hemp plants fail to produce this substance because they lack a gene that makes an enzyme to produce THCA. Hemp is rich in non-psychoactive CBDA, while marijuana produces THC.

In the US, before the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act, cannabis was a common ingredient in medicinal tinctures, and sellers were not required to mention it on their labels. During the 1920s and 1930s, Mexican immigration to the United States spiked as a result of the Mexican Revolution. People moving from Mexico brought along the custom of using marijuana for recreation, and the drug became linked with public fears of the newcomers.

LINK more info from my blog

Incidentally, it is not possible to overdose on marijuana like you can on heroin or cocaine. 

Dec 2, 2016

CBD vs. THC

 Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two main ingredients in a cannabis plant. Both CBD and THC belong to a unique class of compounds known as cannabinoids.

While many strains of marijuana are known for having abundant levels of THC, high-CBD strains are less common. THC is probably best known for being the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. CBD is non-psychoactive. In other words, CBD does not get you high. This unique feature of CBD is what makes it so appealing as a medicine.

THC is known to cause some people to feel anxious or paranoid, but CBD is believed to have the opposite effect. Studies show that CBD works to counteract the anxiety caused by ingesting THC. A number of studies also suggest that CBD can reduce anxiety when administered on its own.

In addition to being non-psychoactive, CBD seems to have antipsychotic properties. Researchers believe that CBD may protect marijuana users from getting too high by reducing the psychosis-like effects of THC. On its own, CBD is being tested as an antipsychotic medicine for people with schizophrenia.

One of the most common uses of cannabis is as a sleep aid. THC is believed to be responsible for most of marijuana’s sleep-inducing effects. On the other hand, studies suggest CBD acts to promote wakefulness, making CBD a poor choice as a sleep medicine. The opposite effects of CBD and THC on sleep may explain why some strains of cannabis cause users to feel drowsy while others are known to boost energy.

While most countries have strict laws surrounding cannabis and THC, the legal status of CBD is less clear. In the United States, CBD is technically illegal since it is classified as a Schedule I drug under federal law. A pharmaceutical form of CBD, called Epidiolex, was only recently cleared by the FDA to be tested in children with severe epilepsy.

CBD is also found in hemp, which can be legally imported and sold in the U.S. Some companies have taken advantage of this loophole by importing high-CBD hemp extracts from other countries where hemp is produced.

Nov 23, 2018

Hemp CBD vs. Cannabis CBD

CBD (cannabidiol) oil and hemp oil are both low in THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol), but the difference in the amount of CBD these products contain is high.

Hemp oil usually has about 3 to 5 percent of CBD, while cannabis CBD oil has about 18 to 20 percent. It is the higher concentration that makes cannabis CBD beneficial in the treatment of various health disorders.

Hemp oil based CBD products do not contain enough of the compound to be considered much more than a health supplement. These are the products found in health food and other stores and legal in all 50 states.

Consider hemp oil-based CBD as a vitamin grade and Cannabis CBD as pharmaceutical grade.

Incidentally, Hemp CBD is regulated by the FDA as a dietary supplement, and like other dietary supplements the FDA is “not authorized to review dietary supplement products for safety and effectiveness before they are marketed.”

Hemp and marijuana are both Cannabis. Hemp is Cannabis sativa, and marijuana is either Cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica. Hemp is the common and legal term for cannabis that contains less than .3% THC. Marijuana is the common and legal term for cannabis that contains .3% and more THC.

Nov 18, 2016

Indica vs. Sativa vs. Hybrid

With the recent election, another sea change is beginning. That change stems from a number of states approving legislation for the legalization of marijuana, either for recreational or medical purposes.
It seems odd to me that any substance can be classified as either medical or recreational. I guess that pouring vodka on a wound to cleanse it might be considered medical use and drinking it might be considered recreational. However, marijuana can be ingested the same way for both purposes. The practical distinction appears to be political.
Cannabis classification has been around for a long time. Early taxonomic distinctions between Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa began in the 18th century when differences between their structure and resin production were first noted. The hybrid category was adopted later on, as growers began mixing genetics from different geographic locations. In addition to the major strains, each can have many minor strains that produce different effects.

Indica strains are known for being physically sedating, perfect for relaxing with a movie or as a nightcap before bed.

Sativas typically provide more invigorating, uplifting cerebral effects that pair well with physical activity, social gatherings, and creative projects.

Hybrids tend to fall somewhere in between the indica-sativa spectrum, depending on the traits they inherit from their parent strains.
Other unique attributes:
Indica and sativa plants have differences in appearance.
Sativa plants have a longer maturation cycle than indica plants.
Indica strains tend to produce heavier yields than sativa strains.
Indica and sativa strains tend to have different flavor profiles.

Because of these differences, medical patients using cannabis to treat their symptoms and conditions may also consider a strain’s classification. A patient suffering from fatigue or depression may use a sativa during the day, and another treating pain and insomnia will likely choose an indica strain at nighttime.


Incidentally, most countries use the word cannabis vs. the US use of the word marijuana. Also, the US stock market and valuations for cannabis companies is vigorously growing. See also my blog LINK

Feb 15, 2019

Eating Marijuana

Most edible marijuana is metabolized by the liver, which then produces a kind of THC that has a bigger psychedelic punch than the THC that reaches your blood plasma when you smoke it. So when you finally feel the edible’s effects, it will likely be more powerful than what you get from a joint, plus the high will last much longer, up to 12 hours.

Edibles are split into two categories: foods like cookies, candies and pills that are metabolized in the liver, as described above, and products like lollipops, gums, and sublingual drops that take effect through saliva in your mouth. The latter type works faster, but the effects might not be as powerful and will wear off more quickly.

Sep 21, 2018

MJ Overdose - NOT

Marijuana is impossible to overdose on. The median lethal dose (LD50) of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana) is so high and the methods of intake so dilute that it would take impossible feats to have it occur.


While there are a couple of different and conflicting sources, one estimate placed it at 40,000 times as much as the dose needed to get high. For instance, with cannabis brownies you would die of sugar poisoning long before the THC got you. With smoking, you would need to smoke about 1,500 pounds in a duration of 15 minutes. This is contrasted with alcohol, where five to ten times the amounted needed to get you drunk can kill you.

Nov 18, 2011

Organic News

True and funny. Nebraska troopers patrolling the state fair grounds in September told a woman that she had an "illegal" message on her T-shirt and that if she wished to remain at the fair, she would have to either change shirts or wear hers inside out. The message was a marijuana leaf picture with the slogan "Don't panic, It's organic." She was at the fair to attend the night's live concert starring self-proclaimed marijuana user Willie Nelson.

Dec 28, 2018

Cannabis and Big Business

Cannabis is now fully legal in Canada and rapidly taking over the rest of the world, as soon as politicians get their acts together. Even though outlets are limited and the industry is in its nascent stages, big business is beginning to pour billions in investment to get ahead of the pack for worldwide dominance. Now that hemp is legal and no longer controlled by the Controlled Substance Act in the US, some say it is the crack in the dam and time to look for even more action and investments. Following are a few recently announced deals.

AB InBev (Budweiser, Labatt's, Stella Artois, and more) said it is teaming up with Canada's Tilray to research cannabis-infused drinks. Together, they will invest a combined $100 million into researching non-alcoholic drinks containing cannabis elements.

Marlboro owner Altria invested $1.8 billion in cannabis company Cronos. Phillip Morris is also looking for a cannabis partner to invest in.

Constellation brands (Corona and others) invested four billion dollars into Canopy Growth, another Canadian marijuana business.

Heineken launched Hi-Fi Hops, a cannabis-only beverage in a handful of dispensaries in California. The beverage is designed to taste like beer, but does not contain alcohol. Currently, the beverage comes in a ten-milligram version with THC, and a hybrid version with five milligrams of THC and five milligrams of CBD.

Molson Coors Canada announced a joint venture with The Hydropothecary Corporation, a recognized leader in Canadian medical cannabis to develop a line of non-alcoholic, cannabis-infused beverages.

Alberta-based Aurora Cannabis Inc. recently announced a license agreement with Alcanna, Canada’s largest private-sector liquor retailer paying $82.5 million for a 19.9 percent ownership interest in Alcanna, which at the time was called Liquor Stores N.A. Alcanna already begun converting some of its 229 liquor stores into cannabis retail outlets.

Microsoft shook the cannabis industry and much of the business world when it announced that it would be entering the cannabis industry via a partnership to provide seed-to-sale tracking software, a lucrative sector in cannabis.

Jack in the Box fast-food chain teamed up with the Snoop Dogg-backed cannabis media company Merry Jane to offer a limited-time meal for the cheeky price of $4.20. It is available at a handful of locations in Southern California. The meal was more symbolic than it was an actual entry into the cannabis industry. It marked the first time a non-cannabis company the size of Jack in the Box publicly marketed directly to cannabis consumers.

Walmart, Amazon, and Home Depot sell hydroponic equipment, grow lights, and a number of other products that are used for cultivating cannabis. These are essential items for some cannabis growers, but they have other uses too, so the retailers selling them do not necessarily raise eyebrows. They also sell products that are specifically geared towards cannabis cultivation. American Cannabis Company has a distribution agreement with all three retailers. The retailers will distribute such products as SoHum Living Soils – designed for cannabis cultivation.

Incidentally, investing in cannabis stocks is looking like investing in Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft and others was, before they achieved wildly inflated prices they command today.

Mar 9, 2018

Coffee Beans, Light vs. Dark Roast

Caffeine is extremely stable during the roasting process. A change in caffeine depends on how you measure your coffee.
There is an estimated ninety bean difference between a pound of dark and light roast coffee, with the dark roast higher. During the roasting process, a bean loses its mass. The density of the bean changes; beans that are roasted longer are less dense. That is why you have more beans by mass of dark roasts.

If you measure your coffee by scoops, light roasted coffee will have more caffeine, since the beans are denser than a darker roast. However, if you weigh your scoops, darker roasts will have more caffeine, because there is less mass. Depending on how ground coffee is measured, there is only a minimal variance in caffeine content with dark and light roasts. Unlike Marijuana,  people have died from caffeine overdose.

Mar 17, 2017

CBD vs. THC

Different strains of cannabis have different and higher CBD or higher THC levels.
CBD is the abbreviation for cannabidiol, the cannabinoid second only to THC when it comes to average volume. Recently, research has shown CBD to have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety properties without the psychoactive effects, such as getting high. Its use looks promising to combat  Crohn’s disease, PTSD, multiple sclerosis, and Dravet’s Syndrome.

THC is one of over 480 different compounds present in the cannabis plant. So far about 85 have been identified as cannabinoids The most well known of these compounds is the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC.
Bottom line, THC is the stuff in cannabis that makes us high, while CBD is the stuff in cannabis that is used for medicinal purposes and does not make us high. Neither has a lethal dose.


Incidentally, marijuana is the most-consumed illegal drug in Germany, but as of this month, March, cannabis has expanded medical and legal allowances. Now doctors can simply write their patients a prescription if, for example, they suffer from chronic pain or a serious loss of appetite due to an illness. German health insurance providers also now must cover the costs of cannabis treatments.

Feb 22, 2013

Prescription Cigarettes

Just when some states have begun to legalize marijuana, one state wants to un-legalize cigarettes.

SALEM, OR (KPTV) - There is a new bill in the Oregon Legislature. Rep. Mitch Greenlick, from Portland, is sponsoring a bill that makes cigarettes a Schedule III controlled substance, meaning it would be illegal to possess or distribute cigarettes without a doctor's prescription.

Under the proposal, offenders would face maximum punishments of one year in prison, a $6,250 fine or both. This should be fun to watch.

Feb 18, 2010

Laurel and Hardy?

I have always been a huge fan of the boys and I didn't didn't make this one up. Laurel and Hardy delivered 50 bags of cocaine to a home in Kingston, Pennsylvania, where police arrested them. Hardy was also found to have ten bags of marijuana in his possession. 31-year-old Carlos Laurel and 39-year-old Andre Hardy were held at the Luzerne County Jail on several felony drug charges. Do you think they understand the irony of their partnership?